Technical Information: Papers

Advances in Line Array technology for live sound

by Bill Webb and Jason Baird (November 2003)

In recent years, the line array loudspeaker system has become the dominant player in the touring sound industry. Line arrays are currently perceived to offer significant benefits over horizontally arrayed clusters, including a more consistent frequency response over the audience area, increased high frequency throw and reduced set-up time. This paper attempts to offer an insight into why the line array principle has been applied to live sound and explain some of the factors to be considered in implementing a practical design.


(1 MB)

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Simulation of the acoustic field produced by cavities using the Boundary Element – Rayleigh Integral Method (BERIM) and its application to a horn loudspeaker.

by Stephen Kirkup and Ambrose Thompson (July 2004)

In this paper a method based on coupling the interior boundary element method (BEM) and the Rayleigh Integral Method (RIM) for simulating the acoustic field of a cavity with one opening is proposed. Such a method has a number of applications in acoustics. In this paper we will be applying the method to the problem of determining the acoustic response of a typical horn loudspeaker


(3.9 MB)

Line Performance at Mid and High Frequencies.

by Henrik Staffeldt and Ambrose Thompson (October 2004)

The paper is focusing on the direct sound frequency response of line arrays - rectlinear or curved - at mid and high frequencies. In this frequency range a line array may produce irregular on- and off-axis frequency responses in the audience area. The irregularities, which appear as frequency varying attenuation, depend in a complicated way on array configuration and air absorption.

Array performance prediction software usually models a line array as a number of directive point sources placed on a line or curve. The directive point source model has been used to simulate line arrays to study the frequency response behaviour of line arrays at mid and high frequencies. The results of the study are compared with frequency response predictions calculated by new software including multi-channel array controller simulations and measured complex spherical polar data for a specific 3-way line array cabinet. The predictions are compared to direct sound frequency response measurements on line arrays using the same 3-way cabinet to show the degree of accuracy with which directive point source models can predict the frequency responses of line arrays.



(0.18 MB)

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